CELULAS MADRES EN ODONTOLOGÍA

Son células que poseen la capacidad de autorenovarse en forma ilimitada y pueden dar origen a diferentes tipos celulares. Este tipo de células pueden hallarse en el embrión o en tejidos adultos.

Los tejidos adultos como la médula ósea, la pulpa dental, el ligamento periodontal, el tejido adiposo, el cerebro, el corazón y los músculos, contienen células madre. Sin embargo el contenido de SC varía de un tejido a otro. Las SC embrionarias (SCE) humanas pueden ser aisladas a partir de fetos en estadíos tempranos (etapa de blastocito, fase celular interna) y se pueden diferenciar in Vitro, en varios tipos celulares, incluyendo células hematopoyéticas, miocitos cardíacos y esqueléticos, y adipocitos.

Actualmente las fuentes más usadas para extraer céluals madre de tejidos adultos son las células madre mesenquimales (MSC) humanas, que están presentes en el estroma de la médula ósea, constituyendo una población totalmente diferente de las células madre hematopoyéticas, y su papel es contribuir a la regeneración de los tejidos mesenquimáticos (hueso, cartílago, músculo, ligamento, tendón, tejido adiposo y estroma). Se ha podido aislar, cultivar y diferenciar MSC humanas, con rasgos típicos de osteocitos, condrocitos o adipocitos, respectivamente.

A pesar de las investigaciones realizadas in Vitro, en animales de experimentación y en humanos, la terapia de células madre para la recuperación de tejidos, aún presenta muchos interrogantes. Entre ellos: ¿cuál es la fuente ideal de células madre?, ¿Es benéfico transplantar células madre con algún grado de diferenciación? ¿Es útil la aplicación de factores de crecimiento a las células cultivadas in Vitro? ¿Existe una verdadera integración de estas células transplantadas al tejido receptor? ¿Pueden las células transplantadas recuperar la función del tejido huésped sin producir efectos adversos?

Buscando solucionar estos interrogantes, otras disciplinas que han surgido también a partir del proyecto genoma humano, buscan mejorar las posibilidades de aplicación clínica de esta nueva terapia. La Terapia Génicaes (http://recursostic.javeriana.edu.co/doc/genica.pdf) una herramienta poderosa para modificar las células madre, con el fin de utilizarlas en el tratamiento de una variedad de enfermedades humanas. De modo similar, la Bioingeniería (http://recursostic.javeriana.edu.co/doc/bioingenieria.pdf) es utilizada junto con la terapia de células madre, en la neoformación de diferentes tejidos.

Las SC aisladas de hueso o de pulpa dental podrán ser usadas en un futuro, para reparar el hueso craneofacial o regenerar tejido dental,en pacientes con enfermedades degenerativas, traumas, enfermedades infecciosas, síndromes y/o maloclusiones esqueléticas . La investigación de células madre en odontología, está dirigida hacia la regeneración de del órgano dental completo, y hacia la regeneración de tejidos del complejo craneofacial (creación de cóndilos mandibulares, formación de pequeños segmentos de hueso, y creación y transplante de grandes segmentos de hueso mandibular, entre otros).

http://recursostic.javeriana.edu.co/doc/stem_cells.pdf

11 thoughts on “CELULAS MADRES EN ODONTOLOGÍA

  1. hola. tengo veinte años.tengo casi todas mis muelas obturadas con resina y dos incrustaciones. me gustaria saber si es posible a partir de celulas madre, volver a reconstruir mis muelas

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