ARNOLD GESELL

ARNOLD LUCIUS GESELL

Arnold Gesell y su madre AÑO 1923
(1882)

(1880-1961) Psicólogo norteamericano, n. en Alma (Wis.) y m. en New Haven (Conn.). Estudió en las universidades de Clark y Yale. Investigó el crecimiento y desarrollo de los niños por medio de la impresión de películas y otros originales procedimientos. También estudió la psicología de la infancia anormal y el desarrollo de los mellizos y de los tarados. Sus principales obras son Infancy Human Growth (1928) y Vision: His Development in Infant and Child (1949).
Arnold Gesell creó un instituto de investigación en la Universidad de Yale con el único objetivo de estudiar a los niños, analizando su comportamiento a través de filmaciones. Además de introducir esta técnica, Gesell aplicó el método cruzado por secciones, en el que distintos niños son observados a varias edades diferentes, planteando por vez primera un desarrollo intelectual por etapas semejantes a las del desarrollo físico infantil.
Los resultados reunidos durante un periodo de veinte años ofrecieron información abundante sobre los esquemas y las cifras claves en el desarrollo evolutivo, del que también se señalaron pautas, según la edad, para una amplia variedad de comportamientos. Estas normas serían empleadas tanto por los profesionales de la educación como por los padres para valorar su desarrollo. El problema de estos estudios basados en la observación fue que, al tomar como punto de partida la evolución y la genética, no hicieron referencia en las variables ambientales, que fueron prácticamente excluidas de los trabajos sobre la inteligencia.
Es autor del libro titulado “El niño de 1 a 5 años” que es uno de los más valiosos estudios sobre psicología, psicometría y educación de la primera infancia realizados en el terreno de las ciencias humanas contemporáneas. Elaborado conjuntamente por especialistas de primera magnitud bajo la dirección de Arnold Gesell, de quien constituye una de sus obras medulares, se fundamenta en observaciones sistemáticas realizadas sobre un grupo fijo de niños normales a lo largo de su evolución, en observaciones ocasionales sobre otros niños y, finalmente, en observaciones de niños no normales. En la primera parte, así, se analiza el panorama de la evolución en su conjunto y se caracterizan las distintas edades. En la segunda, se examinan cuatro aspectos de la evolución del niño entre el primer y el quinto año: el desarrollo motor, la conducta adaptativa, el desarrollo del lenguaje y la conducta personal-social. Finalmente, la tercera parte expone los fundamentos de la técnica que debe regir el examen del niño durante esos años de desarrollo.

ARNOLD GESELL, EN SU CLÍNICA DE NIÑOS – 1943
Según el psicólogo Arnold Gesell, el desarrollo físico de un niño o una niña sigue los siguientes patrones diferenciados:
1. GRADIENTE CÉFALO-CAUDAL
El desarrollo progresivo de las habilidades y destrezas desde la cabeza a la cola, es decir se desarrolla antes los movimientos de los ojos y el cuello que del tronco, para terminar con las piernas.
Esta ley del Céfalo control: dice que se controlan antes las partes del cuerpo que están cerca de la cabeza.
A los cuatro meses; son capaces de estar sentados con apoyo.
A los cinco meses; son capaces de estar sentados sin apoyo.
A los siete meses; son capaces de realizar desplazamientos, gateando, arrastrándose por el suelo, arrastrándose sentados.
Sobre los ocho o nueve meses; son capaces de mantenerse de pie apoyándose en algo.
A los once meses son capaces de mantenerse de pie sin apoyo, son capaces de caminar llevados de la mano.
2. GRADIENTE PRÓXIMO-DISTAL.
El desarrollo progresivo desde el centro del cuerpo hacia los miembros. Es decir que un niño antes puede mover el hombro que la muñeca, para terminar con los dedos.
3. GRADIENTE GENERAL-ESPECIFICO.
Los movimientos generales son anteriores a los precisos. Los concretos a los abstractos y los sencillos a los complejos.

10 thoughts on “ARNOLD GESELL

  1. Hola Doctor muy buen el trabajo sobre Gesell, soy enfermera y estoy realizando una maestria en Estimulación Temprana, y tenemos que utilizar mucho el test de Gesell, que a pesar de estar ya tan viejo de hecho aun nos es de mucha ayuda y nos indica posibles problemas en niños dede muy cortas edades, apesar de ser del año 1976, aun 32 años despues nos es de mucha ayuda, y perosnas como usted que tiene informacion en internet sobr Arnold Gesell, nos ayudan mucho en los trabajosd e investigación de la universidad.
    Saludos desde COSTA RICA, CENTROAMERICA
    Lucrecia Méndez Varela

  2. stoy realizando un trabajo de psicologia y quiero sabeer en si cual es la propuesta de gessell?? y los conceptos basicos ..!! soy de mexico y estudio en la buap

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