INVERSIONISTAS PREFIEREN PERÚ QUE CHILE

Salarios del vecino país también son menores:
Costo energético en Perú es 50% más bajo que en Chile
Traslado de inversiones desde Chile hacia la nación del norte -como lo anunciara CMPC hace algunas semanas- se justifica por este ítem.
GUSTAVO ORELLANA V.

La energía más barata, gracias al descubrimiento de grandes yacimientos de gas natural, es la principal ventaja que tiene el vecino país frente a Chile para la atracción de inversiones, lo que ha causado que varias empresas, entre ellas CMPC, prefieran ese territorio para el desarrollo de determinados negocios.

En efecto, el kilowatt/hora en Perú cuesta entre 8 y 10 centavos de dólar, mientras que en Chile la tarifa de la zona central se sitúa entre los 16 y 23 centavos de la divisa.

Una ventaja más que relevante considerando, además, que en Chile los costos eran similares a los peruanos hace sólo dos años, cuando comenzaron los cortes de gas argentino que obligaron a las generadoras a producir electricidad con diésel, que es más costoso.

Perú también muestra ventajas respecto de Chile en los precios de los combustibles líquidos: un litro de diésel cuesta allí el equivalente a $428, 40% menos que los $600 que se pagan en Santiago. En el vecino país no se vende por litro, sino por galón (equivalente a 3,785 litros).

La bencina, en el centro de Lima, cuesta 3% menos que en Chile. El litro de 95 octanos se comercializa en unos $590.

Estabilidad de precios

Según el experto eléctrico peruano Guillermo Laureano Ramírez -quien tiene entre sus clientes a la chilena Ripley-, la mayor ventaja incaica es la estabilidad que tienen los precios eléctricos, los que no muestran mayores aumentos aun cuando las alzas mundiales en el precio del petróleo afectan a los dos mercados.

“El precio medio de la energía eléctrica es, en las casas, de 10 centavos de dólar por kw/h, y las industrias compran a cerca de 8 centavos. En general, se trata de tarifas muy estables, están indexadas al precio del petróleo, a la variación de la inflación y al dólar, pero mes a mes la variación es marginal”, apunta Ramírez.

La matriz energética peruana, además, tiene un alto componente de hidroelectricidad (40%), gracias a la construcción de centrales ubicadas en la zona selvática. El 30% es gas natural -porcentaje que se prevé aumente cuando se terminen las obras de conexión desde Camisea- y sólo el 20% es petróleo.

Según Francisco de Aguirre, socio de Electroconsultores, en Chile se tiende a culpar a la falta de gas natural argentino de los aumentos en los costos, lo que él rebate porque, en su visión, muchas inversiones que debieron hacerse para aprovechar el potencial hídrico no se concretaron, obligando a generar cada vez más con el costoso diésel.

“Si vemos qué se construyó después de la central Ralco, vemos que no hubo nuevos embalses. Deberíamos, para aprovechar los recursos y dar estabilidad al sistema, construir una Ralco cada dos años”, estima Aguirre, quien agrega que desde 2006 se han anunciado nuevas inversiones, pero éstas no estarán en operaciones sino al finalizar esta década.

Por ende, su diagnóstico para el mediano plazo es pesimista, porque en Chile el costo de la electricidad seguirá por las nubes. “Enfrentaremos todo un período entre 2002 y 2010 en que vamos a estar en una situación poco competitiva frente a países como Perú”, apunta el experto.

DIÉSEL BARATO

EL PETRÓLEO cuesta en Lima el equivalente a $428, 40% menos que en Santiago.

Salarios son mas bajos

El sueldo mínimo peruano es de $90.600. 60% menos que los $144 mil que se pagan en Chile.

Pese a que este ítem también influye en las decisiones de inversión, el socio de Berg Consultores, Huberto Berg, plantea que esto no es tan relevante, porque no es bueno que la competitividad de las empresas se asocie a los sueldos.

“Sí es preocupante que en Chile haya una serie de costos laborales que han ido creciendo con la conflictividad que se ha visto en varias empresas”, apunta, y pone como ejemplo el gasto de recurrir a la Justicia cuando hay discrepancias con la Dirección del Trabajo.

http://diario.elmercurio.com/2008/05/26/economia_y_negocios/economia_y_negocios/noticias/5DEB1F23-8D82-450E-B117-6B02AC9D6567.htm?id={5DEB1F23-8D82-450E-B117-6B02AC9D6567}

FRATERNALMENTE. DR. LUIS ANTONIO, ROMERO YAHUACHI

5 thoughts on “INVERSIONISTAS PREFIEREN PERÚ QUE CHILE

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