INTERFASE CEREBRO-MÁQUINA

La investigación ha sido efectuada por especialistas de la Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad de Pensilvania. El nuevo enfoque de diseño para la interfaz cerebro-máquina presenta claras ventajas con respecto a otros conceptos, más teóricos que prácticos. “El sistema nervioso no respondería debidamente ante la una invasión de electrodos, pero puede ser engañado para aceptar una interfaz que le permita hacer lo que sí realiza habitualmente: asimilar nuevas células nerviosas en su propia red”, explica Douglas H. Smith, uno de los autores principales de la investigación, profesor de Neurocirugía y director del Centro para Lesiones Cerebrales y Reparación, en la Universidad Estatal de Pensilvania.

21 Feb 2007 | SOLOCIENCIA.COM

CYBORG

ara el desarrollo de la nueva generación de prótesis, se busca usar regiones intactas de tejido nervioso que permitan transmitir órdenes para manejar un dispositivo, como por ejemplo una extremidad artificial. El desafío es lograr la transmisión bidireccional de señales en la prótesis. Por ejemplo, los pensamientos del paciente podrían convertir las señales nerviosas en movimientos de una prótesis, mientras que los estímulos sensoriales generados a partir de lecturas captadas por medios artificiales en la prótesis, como la temperatura o la presión, permitían al usuario adaptar los movimientos a las circunstancias de cada momento.

La característica principal de la interfaz propuesta es la capacidad para crear tejido nervioso vivo y trasplantable, ya acoplado a electrodos, de modo que el extremo puramente biológico de la interfaz producida en el laboratorio se integre con el nervio del paciente, transmitiendo las señales del nervio hacia el extremo de la interfaz provisto de los electrodos, que iría enlazado al sistema electrónico. Y lo mismo, en la ruta inversa. Esto podría permitir algún día devolver la funcionalidad a personas con lesiones de la médula espinal, amputación de una extremidad u otras discapacidades comparables.

Para crear la interfaz, el equipo usó un proceso recién desarrollado de crecimiento elástico de fibras nerviosas (axones). Dos placas adyacentes de neuronas (una de las cuales está acoplada a un microchip) son puestas en un biorreactor. Los axones crecen para conectar las poblaciones neuronales de cada placa. Éstas son entonces lentamente estiradas durante varios días, gracias a un sistema motor controlado por ordenador, hasta que alcanzan la longitud deseada.

Dado que Smith y su equipo han demostrado que los axones producidos por crecimiento elástico pueden transmitir señales eléctricas activas, creen que la interfaz de tejido nervioso, a través del microchip, podría detectar y registrar señales bidireccionales en tiempo real.

En otro estudio, Smith y sus colegas demostraron que la interfaz podía crecer al ser trasplantada en una rata con médula espinal lesionada. El equipo está ahora concentrado en estudios de medición de la actividad eléctrica neuronal a través de los puentes nerviosos recién diseñados y de la restauración de la actividad motora en animales sujetos a experimentos

http://www.laflecha.net/canales/ciencia/noticias/desarrollan-un-concepto-viable-de-cyborg

FRATERNALMENTE. DR. LUIS ANTONIO, ROMERO YAHUACHI

6 thoughts on “INTERFASE CEREBRO-MÁQUINA

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