GNOSTICISMO CRISTIANO

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EL GNOSTICISMO CRISTIANO, PAGANO EN SUS RAÍCES, LLEGABA A PRESENTARSE COMO REPRESENTANTE DE SU TRADICIÓN MÁS PURA. EL TEXTO GNÓSTICO EUGNOSTO EL BEATO PARECE SER ANTERIOR AL NACIMIENTO DE CRISTO.

LA ENORME DIVERSIDAD DE DOCTRINAS Y “ESCUELAS GNÓSTICAS” HACE DIFÍCIL HABLAR DE UN SOLO GNOSTICISMO. ALGUNOS DENOMINADORES COMUNES DE SU PENSAMIENTO, NO OBSTANTE, PODRÍAN SER:

 

SU CARÁCTER INICIÁTICO, POR EL CUAL CIERTAS DOCTRINAS SECRETAS DE JESUCRISTO ESTABAN DESTINADAS A SER REVELADAS A UNA ÉLITE DE INICIADOS. DE ESTA FORMA, LOS GNÓSTICOS CRISTIANOS RECLAMAN CONSTITUIR TESTIGOS ESPECIALES DE CRISTO, CON ACCESO DIRECTO AL CONOCIMIENTO DE LO DIVINO A TRAVÉS DE LA GNOSIS O EXPERIMENTACIÓN INTROSPECTIVA A TRAVÉS DE LA CUAL SE PODÍA LLEGAR AL CONOCIMIENTO DE LAS VERDADES TRASCENDENTALES. LA GNOSIS ERA PUES LA FORMA SUPREMA DE CONOCIMIENTO, SOLAMENTE AL ALCANCE DE INICIADOS.

EL MISMO CONOCIMIENTO DE LAS VERDADES TRASCENDENTES PRODUCÍA LA SALVACIÓN. SEGÚN LAS DIVERSAS CORRIENTES, LA IMPORTANCIA DE PRACTICAR UNA VIDA CRISTIANA PODÍA VARIAR, SIENDO EN CUALQUIER CASO ALGO SECUNDARIO.

SU CARÁCTER DUALISTA, POR EL CUAL SE HACÍA UNA ESCISIÓN TAJANTE ENTRE LA MATERIA Y EL ESPÍRITU. EL MAL Y LA PERDICIÓN ESTABAN LIGADOS A LA MATERIA, MIENTRAS QUE LO DIVINO Y LA SALVACIÓN PERTENECÍAN A LO ESPIRITUAL. POR ESA RAZÓN NO PODÍA EXISTIR SALVACIÓN ALGUNA EN LA MATERIA NI EN EL CUERPO. EL SER HUMANO SÓLO PODÍA ACCEDER A LA SALVACIÓN A TRAVÉS DE LA PEQUEÑA CHISPA DE DIVINIDAD QUE ERA EL ALMA O ESPÍRITU. SÓLO A TRAVÉS DE LA CONCIENCIA DE LA PROPIA ALMA, DE SU CARÁCTER DIVINO Y DE SU ACCESO INTROSPECTIVO A LAS VERDADES TRASCENDENTES SOBRE SU PROPIA NATURALEZA PODÍA EL ALMA LIBERARSE Y SALVARSE. ESTA EXPERIMENTACIÓN CASI EMPÍRICA DE LO DIVINO ERA LA GNOSIS, UNA EXPERIENCIA INTERNA DEL ALMA. AQUÍ SE PUEDE VER EN EL PLATONISMO UN ANTECEDENTE CLARO DEL GNOSTICISMO, TANTO EN SU DUALISMO MATERIA-ESPÍRITU, COMO EN SU FORMA INSTROSPECTIVA DE ACCEDER AL CONOCIMIENTO SUPERIOR, SIENDO LA GNOSIS UNA VERSIÓN RELIGIOSA DE LA MAYÉUTICA DE PLATÓN. ESTE DUALISMO TAMBIÉN PREFIGURA EL FUTURO MANIQUEÍSMO.

SU PECULIAR CRISTOLOGÍA: SIENDO LA MATERIA EL ANCLAJE Y ORIGEN DEL MAL, NO ES CONCEBIBLE QUE JESUCRISTO PUDIERA SER UN SER DIVINO Y ASOCIARSE A UN CUERPO MATERIAL A LA VEZ, PUESTO QUE LA MATERIA ES CONTAMINADORA. POR ESA RAZÓN SURGE LA DOCTRINA DEL CUERPO APARENTE DE CRISTO, SEGÚN LA CUAL LA DIVINIDAD NO PUDO VENIR EN CARNE SINO QUE VINO EN ESPÍRITU MOSTRANDO A LOS HOMBRES UN CUERPO APARENTEMENTE MATERIAL (DOCETISMO). OTRAS CORRIENTES SOSTIENEN QUE JESUCRISTO FUE UN HOMBRE VULGAR QUE EN LA ÉPOCA DE SU MINISTERIO FUE LEVANTADO, ADOPTADO POR UNA FUERZA DIVINA (ADOPCIONISMO). OTRAS DOCTRINAS AFIRMAN QUE LA VERDADERA MISIÓN DE CRISTO ERA TRANSMITIR A LOS ESPÍRITUS HUMANOS EL PRINCIPIO DEL AUTOCONOCIMIENTO QUE PERMITÍA QUE LAS ALMAS SE SALVARAN POR SÍ MISMAS AL LIBERARSE DE LA MATERIA. OTRAS ENSEÑANZAS PROPONÍAN INCLUSO QUE JESÚS NO ERA UN SER DIVINO.

PECULIARES ENSEÑANZAS SOBRE LA DIVINIDAD. ENTRE ÉSTAS SE ENCONTRABA LA DE QUE TODO ESPÍRITU ERA DIVINO, INCLUYENDO LA PARTE ESPIRITUAL DEL HOMBRE (EL ALMA), QUE NO NECESITABA A NADIE PARA SALVARSE A SÍ MISMO, SIENDO CRISTO ENVIADO A REVELAR ESA VERDAD. POR OTRA PARTE, EL CREADOR/ORDENADOR DE LA MATERIA (LLAMADO DEMIURGO), AL MULTIPLICAR CON SU CREACIÓN LA MATERIA, SERÍA UN SER MALVADO Y OPUESTO AL VERDADERO SER SUPREMO DEL CUAL SURGIÓ.

CONCLUSIONES ÉTICAS MUY DIVERGENTES: SIGUIENDO LA IDEA DE LA CONDENACIÓN DE LA MATERIA, ALGUNAS CORRIENTES AFIRMABAN QUE ERA NECESARIO EL CASTIGO Y MARTIRIZACIÓN DEL CUERPO PARA, A TRAVÉS DEL PADECIMIENTO DE LA CARNE, CONTRIBUIR A LA LIBERACIÓN DEL ESPÍRITU, PROPUGNANDO UN MODO DE VIDA ASCÉTICO. SIN EMBARGO, OTRAS CORRIENTES AFIRMABAN QUE, SIENDO LA SALVACIÓN DEPENDIENTE ÚNICAMENTE DE LA GNOSIS DEL ALMA, EL COMPORTAMIENTO DEL CUERPO ERA IRRELEVANTE, DISCULPÁNDOLO DE TODA ATADURA MORAL Y LIBRÁNDOLO A TODA CLASE DE GOCES. OTRAS ENSEÑANZAS REPROBABAN LA MULTIPLICACIÓN DE LA MATERIA, SIENDO ASÍ LA PROCREACIÓN UN ACTO CONDENABLE. TAMBIÉN EXISTÍAN CORRIENTES QUE, AL IGUAL QUE EL PLATONISMO Y LAS FILOSOFÍAS ORIENTALES, CREÍAN EN EL RETORNO CÍCLICO DE LAS ALMAS A LA PRISIÓN DE LA MATERIA A TRAVÉS DE LA REENCARNACIÓN. EL INICIADO, IGUALMENTE, BUSCABA ROMPER ESTE CICLO A TRAVÉS DE LA GNOSIS (A TRAVÉS DE LA ILUMINACIÓN, EN LAS RELIGIONES ORIENTALES).

INTERPRETACIÓN ALEGÓRICA DEL CRISTIANISMO Y DE LAS ESCRITURAS. ASÍ, SE REINTERPRETAN A LA LUZ GNÓSTICA LAS HISTORIAS DE LA CREACIÓN, ETC. DÁNDOLES SIGNIFICADOS FILOSÓFICOS.

ESTABLECIMIENTO DE JERARQUÍAS ESPIRITUALES: EN LA CIMA DE LOS SERES EXISTE UN DIOS, UN SER PERFECTO E INMANENTE CUYA PROPIA PERFECCIÓN HACE QUE NO TENGA RELACIÓN ALGUNA CON EL RESTO DE SERES IMPERFECTOS. ES INMUTABLE E INACCESIBLE. DESCENDIENDO EN UNA ESCALA DE SERES EMANADOS DE AQUÉL LLEGAMOS AL DEMIURGO, ANTÍTESIS Y CULMEN DE LA DEGENERACIÓN PROGRESIVA DE LOS SERES ESPIRITUALES, Y ORIGEN DEL MAL. EN SU MALDAD, EL DEMIURGO CREA EL MUNDO, LA MATERIA, ENCADENANDO LA ESENCIA ESPIRITUAL DE LOS HOMBRES A LA PRISIÓN DE LA CARNE. EN ESTE ESCENARIO SE LIBRA UNA BATALLA ENTRE LOS PRINCIPIOS DEL BIEN Y EL MAL, LA MATERIA (APARIENCIA) Y EL ESPÍRITU (SUSTANCIA). PODEMOS VER PARALELISMOS CLAROS CON EL ZOROASTRISMO.

ESTABLECIMIENTO DE JERARQUÍAS HUMANAS: EN LA CIMA DE LA JERARQUÍA HUMANA ESTABAN LOS INICIADOS, EN LOS QUE ES PREDOMINANTE EL ESPÍRITU. ELLOS PUEDEN EXPERIMENTAR LA GNOSIS Y ACCEDER ASÍ A LA SALVACIÓN. POR DEBAJO ESTÁ EL RESTO DE LOS CRISTIANOS, EN LOS QUE PREDOMINA EL ALMA SENSIBLE Y QUE SE PUEDEN SALVAR SIGUIENDO LA GUÍA DE LOS PRIMEROS. EN LA PARTE MÁS BAJA ESTÁN AQUÉLLOS EN QUE PREDOMINA EL CUERPO Y QUE, POR TANTO, NO ALCANZARÁN LA SALVACIÓN.

 

http://estudiantesdelgnosticismo.ning.com/forum/topics/que-es-el-gnosticismo

 

FRATERNALMENTE

DR LUIS ROMERO YAHUACHI

blary33@hotmail.com

 

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