DIAMANTES ARTIFICIALES

st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) }

diamantegira.gif

 

 

     El diamante es carbono puro cristalizado. Es el mineral más duro conocido hasta hoy.

 

Nadie sabe realmente cómo se forma dentro de la tierra un diamante, pero existe una hipótesis basada en la creación de un diamante artificial. Con grafito, a una temperatura por encima de los 3700 grados centígrados y aplicando una presión superior a 120,000 bares se consiguen realizar diamantes artificiales desde hace ya bastante tiempo.

 

Sobre todo esto surge la siguiente hipótesis: imaginemos dentro de nuestro planeta el magma contenido en una de las chimeneas o vías que van hacia la superficie. Si este magma ígneo contiene carbono, y a la vez es sometido a fortísimas presiones producidas por cataclismos o explosiones internas, el carbono cristalizaría en diamante.

Hay muchas formas de hacer diamantes en laboratorio. Hay dos utilizadas habitualmente que son:

1. Presionando grafito (os recuerdo que el grafito es carbono como el diamante) a gran temperatura. De la prensa salen diamantes.
2. Depositando en un sustrato vapor de un gas que contenga carbono (por ejemplo metano). En este sustrato se crea una fina película de diamante.

La primera técnica es capaz de obtener pequeños diamantes del tamaño de una semilla de sésamo (la semilla de sésamo es de 4 mm de longitud por 2 mm de ancho).


Con la segunda técnica se han logrado obtener finas capas de diamante muy largas.


Pero ambas técnicas tienen un defecto similar a los diamantes naturales: tienen demasiadas imperfecciones. Menos que los diamantes naturales pero todavía excesivos para poderlos usar en electrónica.

 

En septiembre de este año, las empresas De Beers Industrial Diamonds (en Inglaterra) e Innovative Material Group (en Suecia) han anunciado un nuevo método de fabricar diamantes lo suficientemente puros para usarse en electrónica.

 

¿El truco? Hay dos ‘trucos’. El primero es utilizar las dos técnicas a la vez. Es decir, se comprime a gran presión y temperatura grafito y a la vez se utiliza una técnica de deposición de gases con alto contenido de Carbono. Este truco ya se había usado y no había funcionado. Ellos han introducido otro ‘truco’: todo lo han hecho con un control más estricto que nunca de presión y temperatura.

 

El resultado ha sido diamantes artificiales del tamaño de una semilla de sésamo con un nivel de impurezas lo suficientemente bajo para hacer buenos semiconductores.

 

¿Cómo de buenos? Pues las medidas de movilidad de electrones y de ‘agujeros’ nos dicen que son mejores que los SIC y los Gan. Es decir, son mejores que los mejores.

 

Indudablemente es un primer paso y habrá que perfeccionar la técnica para hacer diamantes más grandes. Pero la buena noticia es que ese tamaño ya es suficiente para hacer muchos circuitos interesantes.

 

Sin duda sus primeras aplicaciones irán al radar y a los satélites. Pero es muy posible que en no mucho tiempo lleguen a nuestros relojes de pulsera o teléfonos móviles y entonces podremos decir aquello de: este reloj es una joya.

 

Artículo original en Science (Ya sabéis que es de pago, pero casi siempre hay trucos para obtenerlo de algún otro sitio)

 

 

http://www.tronos.com/JoyasyTecnica/diamantes.htm

http://ciencia15.blogalia.com/historias/4441

 

FRATERNALMENTE

LUIS ROMERO YAHUACHI

blary33@gmail.com

 

9 thoughts on “DIAMANTES ARTIFICIALES

  1. Coged mirra la calientas en un cacharro de cobre, lata o lo que sea hasta que se vuelva carbón lo lavas y ahí estan los cristales de diamantes, de ahí sale casi todo, el tamaño el que quieras.
    Ptolomeo la llamaba la cosa nuestra ya que se llama Mi Ra o sea Mi Dios = Mirra
    Te gusta………………
    esto es un rito sagrado=ciencias exactas, utilizarlo como tal
    las imagenes las podeis hacer ustedes, y los analisis tambien.
    otras sabias de plantas funcionan similar
    la cultura se basa en la divulgacion del conocimiento divulgalo
    cuando jesus estava en la cruz, le querian dar vino con mirra para calmarle el dolor, y el dijono me deis mirra yo soy la mirra,
    empieza por leer las mil y una noche, la cenicienta, blanca nieves, el coran la biblia etc…..
    yo no soy alquimista ni estudioso de la ciencias, soy un CHARLATAN

  2. They also took seven armored Coach Outlet Onlinepersonnel carriers.Tarhouni said Libya’s new leadership willChanel Bags move their headquarters from Benghazi to Tripoli Chanel Handbagsthis week to begin implementing political plans to Moncler Jacketshape a new future.But for the time being, guns trump government Louis Vuitton Handbagson the streets of the capital.Tripoli has become a city of Coach Outlet Storecheckpoints, weapons and no real authority as the threat ofChanel Handbags Outlet Gadhafi’s loyalists lingers.Jittery and suspicious anti-Gadhafi Moncler Shopfighters blocked a road Saturday where a drive-by shooting occurred North Face Coatsearlier. They collected weapons and registered them at police stations. Moncler Shop OnlineThose who called themselves rebels just a week ago were now working LV Outletwith Tripoli’s law enforcement authorities.With Gadhafi’s armories emptied,Louis Vuitton Outlet guns — always in large supply in Libya — have proliferated on the streets.Louis VuittonThose who want to carry weapons now must be Coach Sunglassesissued identification cards, but the selection process is coach bagsnot centralized — neighborhood councils are making that decision.Coach Outlet StoreA group called the Tripoli Revolutionary Council is trying to coach.comexert control over the city, creating the potential coach factory storefor further conflict with the established National Transitional coach couponCouncil in a volatile situation.Tarhouni announcedcoach bag Saturday the formation of the Supreme Security Committee, which held its first meeting Friday.

  3. As Europe grapples with Greece and the U.S.struggles to coach outlet store online create jobs, Australia’s economy is soaring, driving the Australian dollar to historic heights against the U.S. coach outlet online dollar — something unthinkable a decade ago when Sydney hosted the coach factory outlet 2000 Olympics. But a strong Australian dollar has not been good for tourism. coach bags In the past 10 years, tourism revenue has shrunk from 3.4% of Australia’s GDP to 2.6%. The number of people flocking coach handbags to Louis vuitton bags Australian shores has also dropped steadily since the Olympics; according to coach wallets the most recent statistics available, international Louis vuitton outlet arrivals were down 2.5% in July 2011from July 2010. Tourism officials realize they have a problem. louis vuitton In an effort to promote the country last year, a number of government louis vuitton bags and tourism bodies spent nearly $5 million to bring Oprah Down Under to tape her show. It didn’t exactly work. Evidently, even Oprah’s magic touch has its limits.
    But there’s another possible solution a little closer to home: China. coach outlet online The statistics speak for themselves. The Chinese are the fastest-growing tourism group in coach factory outlet the world, with approximately 57.4 million people traveling overseas last year. Louis vuitton bags Chinese tourists are now Australia’s third largest louis vuitton outlet market for inbound visitors, but most importantly, its louis vuitton fastest growing one. Within the last year, the number of visitors from coach outlet online the mainland has surged by 23%, contributing $3.26 billion coach outlet online to the economy.

  4. Sometime in the past twoLouis Vuitton Outlet years, Mr. Arbabsiar, whose friendsLouis Vuitton called him Jack, began spendingCoach Outlet Online time in his native IranChanel Handbags, and investigators say he formedCoach Outlet Store a relationship with members ofCoach Outlet Online the Quds Force. But Mr. Hosseini, whoChanel Handbags last saw his old roommateCoach Outlet Online about two months ago, saidChanel Bags Mr. Arbabsiar appeared to beCoach Outlet Online chasing money, not political intrigue.

  5. The bucket <a href="http://nireblog.com/out.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.coachsfactory-online.com%2F&quot; title="Coach
    Factory” rel=”nofollow”>Coach Factoryis back because Louis Vuitton reinvented it.
    The bucket hand<a href="http://nireblog.com/out.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.louisvuitton.co.cm%2F&quot; title="Louis
    Vuitton Bags” rel=”nofollow”>Louis Vuitton Bags was first used as a shopping bag in
    1968 when fashions were
    mod and everyone used the bucket Coco Chanelfor shopping in the larger
    urban areas.
    In the 80’s it was even adopted to wear in Japan with a Kimono. The
    bucket<a href="http://nireblog.com/out.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mycoachoutletstoreonline.com%2F&quot; title="Coach
    Outlet Online” rel=”nofollow”>Coach Outlet Online
    works wells today because it is a welcome Chanel Outlet Storeto the
    fashion world.
    Women buy Louis Vuitton bucket <a href="http://nireblog.com/out.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.coachbags-handbags.net%2F&quot;
    title=”Coach Bags” rel=”nofollow”>Coach Bags because they look smart and hold
    everything
    they need from morning<a href="http://nireblog.com/out.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mycoachfactorystore.com%2F&quot;
    title=”Coach Factory Store” rel=”nofollow”>Coach Factory Storenight and still look
    chic.
    Designers create the trendiest bucketCoach Online Outletthat are on
    the runway this season.
    Besides using their signature logo, Louis Vuitton puts out <a
    href=”http://nireblog.com/out.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.coachsfactoryoutlet.org%2F” title=”Coach Factory Outlet
    Online” rel=”nofollow”>Coach Factory Outlet Online,
    prints and colors that change all of the time. The first thing to remember is
    that bucket handbags come in differentCoach Outlet.
    The smallest<a href="http://nireblog.com/out.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.louis-vuitton.com.de%2F&quot; title="Louis
    Vuitton Outlet” rel=”nofollow”>Louis Vuitton Outlet handbag is for when you just want
    to carry a wallet and smaller personal items.
    A medium bucket<a href="http://nireblog.com/out.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.coachoutletonline-e.com%2F&quot; title="Coach
    Online Outlet” rel=”nofollow”>Coach Online Outlet is great for when you want to go to
    lunch and then go shopping for a few small items.
    Instead of carrying shopping bags you can put everything you buy into a bucket
    Coach
    Outlet
    and keep looking great,
    while you keep everything in the same place. A large bucket <a
    href=”http://nireblog.com/out.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.coachs-factoryoutlet.com%2F” title=”Coach Factory Online” rel=”nofollow”>Coach
    Factory Onlinekeeps shopping items,
    personal items and the things that an office executive needs to keep while she
    goes about her<a href="http://nireblog.com/out.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.coachoutlete.net%2F&quot; title="Coach Purses
    Outlet” rel=”nofollow”>Coach Purses Outlet day.
    The colors are the next thing to look for in bucket <a
    href=”http://nireblog.com/out.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.louisvuittons-outlet.org%2F” title=”Louis Vuitton Outlet
    Online” rel=”nofollow”>Louis Vuitton Outlet Online.
    The colors come out in the fall and the spring and are always<a
    href=”http://nireblog.com/out.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.coachfactory-storeonline.com%2F” title=”Coach Outlet Store
    Online” rel=”nofollow”>Coach Outlet Store Online

  6. Over the centuries,
    Coach Online Outlet has made classic purses which are Louis Vuitton Outletdistributed in the many stores worldwide.
    Coach Outlet HandbagsThey are designed with creativity Chanel Bagsand innovation to ensure the purses are long lasting and unique.
    Coach Factory Some of the latest
    Cheap Louis Vuitton Bags review is emblematic monogram canvas with graffiti,
    Coach Outlet Store creative turmoil which is loved Coach Outlet Online professionals.
    These Coach Outlet Online are available for Coach Outlet Store Online different occasions you can get them for Burberry Scarf official wear and casual or other functions like dinner and outings.Coach Bags There are larger ones that Louis Vuitton Bags can be used for travel.
    Coach Factory Outlet Online The fashion house offers one of the leading luxury brands of
    Louis Vuitton Outlet in the world.
    TheCoach Factory Outlet are available in colors that you canChanel Handbags choose to match your outfit or accessories.
    Coach Factory Store Online There are plain and printed or embroidered types.Louis Vuitton These are more casual and specific LV Bags to the outfit you blend it with.
    Louis Vuitton Outlet The larger types are good for officialCoach Factory Online use since they can carry the files and equipments you need such as a laptop.
    Coach Factory Online
    This reduces the burden of carrying more than one purse.
    Louis Vuitton Sunglasses
    These Coach Factory Outlet from Pursefocus.
    Burberry Bags com are made of materials that make them stand out from the rest.Louis Vuitton Bag For example there are those made from monogram canvas.
    Authentic Louis VuittonThese are complemented with natural cowhide leather trimmings.Burberry Scarf
    They normally have textile lining that make them unique and long lasting.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s