EL SÍNDROME DE HYBRIS (BORRACHERA DE PODER)

 

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LOS GRIEGOS fueron los primeros que utilizaron la palabra “hybris” para definir al héroe que conquista la gloria y que, ebrio de poder y de éxito, comienza a comportarse como un dios, capaz de cualquier cosa. Y el síndrome de Hybris fue descrito hace años por David Owen, que fue ministro de Asuntos Exteriores británico y que, como además era neurólogo, escribió un libro “En la enfermedad y en el poder”, en el que habla de una patología que afecta a determinados políticos con alta responsabilidad de gobierno, que se inicia desde una megalomanía instaurada y termina en una paranoia acentuada. Todo irá bien para el personaje mientras disfrute de las exquisiteces del mando y ordeno, pero que tras la pérdida del poder empezarán sus citas con el psiquiatra para tratar su depresión al verse ya no como un personaje de “Las mil y una noches”, como un iluminado, sino como uno más, como cualquiera que pasa por la acera con la cartilla del paro en el bolsillo.

Llega un momento en que quienes gobiernan dejan de escuchar, se vuelven imprudentes y toman decisiones por su cuenta, sin consultar porque piensan que sus ideas son las correctas. Y aunque finalmente se demuestren erróneas, que no han servido para nada, nunca reconocerán la equivocación y seguirán pensando que están en la senda de la verdad.

Una persona más o menos normal de repente alcanza el poder y al principio le asalta la duda de si será capaz de desarrollar esa actividad engrandecida de la política. Pero pronto sale de la duda porque empiezan a merodearle una legión de incondicionales que no cesan de felicitarle, darle palmaditas en la espalda y halagos, reconociéndole su valía. Y si al principio dudaba de su capacidad se transforma y comienza a pensar que está ahí por méritos propios. Y como no cesan los piropos y las palabras huecas ya se cree el rey del mambo y de él arriba, ninguno.

Es esta una primera fase pero pasa a la siguiente en que cree totalmente en todo lo que hace y dice, y piensa, en su narcisismo calenturiento, que menos mal que estaba ahí para solucionarlo. Si no es por él, todo se iría al garete. El iluminismo se apodera de él y su mundo se hace amplio y el de los demás estrecho; el suyo ilimitado y el de los demás, casi inexistente. Se convierte en infalible y se cree insustituible.

Y todo aquel que no asume sus ideas o las rebate ya es enemigo hasta personal y le indica el camino hacia el ostracismo.

Este trastorno psico-patológico se ha dado en muchos líderes mundiales; ahí están los casos de Churchill, Kennedy, o Bush, y quizás en este grupo haya que situar a Zapatero, Alan García de Perú. Son líderes que no escuchan, que no aceptan decisiones que no sean las suyas, que creen están en posesión de la verdad, que no dan su brazo a torcer, que están ciegos ante las evidencias, que confunden la realidad con la fantasía. En fin, que viven en su mundo, se enrocan dentro de sí, no quieren saber nada de los demás y se sienten capaces desde su alta tribuna de enderezar entuertos, aunque estos se fortalezcan, se endurezcan y sus capacidades queden a ras del suelo.

Nunca entenderán por qué actúan así; dentro de su iluminismo caminan a ciegas y aunque terminen en la más absoluta soledad, antes de llegar dejarán muchos cadáveres en el camino.

 “Los síntomas de la enfermedad del poder comienzan con un clima de sospecha hacia todo lo que rodea al poderoso, siguen con una sensibilidad crispada en cada asunto en donde interviene, se agrega después una creciente incapacidad para soportar las críticas y, más adelante, se acompaña de la sensación de ser indispensable y de que, hasta su llegada al poder, nada se había hecho bien” (E. Hemingway).

En general, la patología del enfermo del poder muestra una persona muy pretensiosa y explotadora, es decir, saca provecho de los demás. No puede identificarse con los sentimientos o necesidades de los otros, envidia o cree que la envidian y tiene actitudes constantemente arrogantes. Los síntomas de los enfermos de poder son elocuentes y comunes a todos los pacientes: exagerada confianza en sí mismos; desprecio por los consejos, alejamiento de la realidad; burlas públicas de otras personas; complejos de persecución e invento de historias y complots para asesinarlos; enemistarse con algunos periodistas y hacerse uña y carne con otros; confrontarse con los poderes fácticos. Se esfuerzan en hacer creer a los incrédulos que su plan de país o comunidad mira más allá de sus narices.

David Owen (In Sickmess and in Power, 2008) explica que el dominio del poder ocasiona cambios en el estado mental y conduce a una conducta arrogante, por lo que las enfermedades mentales necesitan una redefinición para incluir el síndrome de la arrogancia y darles un número en el Código Internacional de Enfermedades (CIE). A algunos políticos el perfume del poder los hace arrogantes y soberbios, tanto así que ponen en riesgo la gobernabilidad de un país, “pues si bien el litio ayuda a controlar algunos desórdenes maníaco depresivos, aún no contamos con un fármaco que ayude a controlar los estados de arrogancia y altanería”. El virus del poder entra en el sistema linfático del político con tal virulencia que hasta los que parecían cuerdos empiezan a mostrar comportamientos extraños. Este síndrome corroe las entrañas de la democracia debido a la arrogancia.

El diccionario define la palabra arrogancia como “Actitud de la persona orgullosa y soberbia que se cree superior a los demás”. Dante lo define como el amor propio perverso que lleva al odio de los demás. Cuando una persona es arrogante se siente superior a los demás. Piensa que siempre tiene la razón y los demás están equivocados. Cualquier cosa que otra persona dice, para el arrogante, si no está de acuerdo, no sirve. Los arrogantes se sienten superiores a causa de su baja autoestima y buscan un mecanismo compensatorio para sobrevivir. Son inseguros y esto se manifiesta denigrando a los demás para poder sentirse bien ellos mismos. “El dinero no cambia al hombre, simplemente lo desenmascara. Si un hombre es naturalmente egoísta, avaro y arrogante, esto se manifiesta con el dinero” (H. Ford).

El Dr. Sherwin B Nuland profesor de Cirugía en la Universidad de Yale ha propuesto en New Haven, Connecticut, que los Jefes de Estado deberían, al asumir el mando Presidencial, renunciar a la privacidad médica y los Médicos que los tratan deberían suspender su deber de confidencialidad Médico/Paciente(el llamado secreto profesional) en aras del bienestar del país, en salvaguarda de los intereses del pueblo, quien a fin de cuentas debe ser el único y soberbio soberano con capacidad y autoridad de modificar leyes y nombrar autoridades.

Los Gobernantes con desordenes Maníaco Depresivos y/o Síndrome de Arrogancia… ¡Tienen los días contados!

http://www.articulo.org/articulo/6976/el_sindrome_de_la_arrogancia_en_politica.html

http://www.eldia.es/2010-10-04/CRITERIOS/12-sindrome-Hybris-borrachera-poder.htm

http://www.laprensa.com.bo/noticias/8-8-2010/noticias/08-08-2010_2089.php

 

FRATERNALMENTE

Luis Romero Yahuachi

 

10 thoughts on “EL SÍNDROME DE HYBRIS (BORRACHERA DE PODER)

  1. Me ha gustado mucho este artículo.
    Mucha gente no comprende que el arrogante realmente tiene baja autoestima.
    Su arrogancia es el medio de protección ante su inseguridad. Este es el tipo de baja autoestima que dificilmente se autoreconoce el arrogante.

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